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Lab Report Exercise 9 The Digestive System Answer

Lab Report Exercise 9: The Digestive System

Purpose

To get an idea about the variety of modifications those exist in the organs of the digestive system, and to understand the mechanism of digestion in detail.

Procedures

Activity 1: Microscopic Observation of Digestive Structures
Observations:

 

Wall Layer

 

Major Functions

 

Mucosa

Surrounds lumen of the GI tract, consists of lamina propria and epithelial cell layer. Participates in secretion, absorption and protection.
 

Sub-mucosa

It’s moderately dense irregular connective tissue which consists of a network of  blood vesselslymphatic vesselsganglion neurons (Meissner’s plexus) with white adipose tissue. It assists in nutrition and protection both activities.
 

Muscularis Externa

It is composed of three layers of smooth muscles, nerve network  and ganglion neurons (Auerbach’s plexus). It takes part in mixing of the ingested food with gastric juices so that, digestion can occur. It also propels the gastric contents into the small intestine.
 

Serosa or Advantitia

Simple squamous epithelium – mesothelium, small quantity of loose connective tissuewhite adipose tissue, large blood vesselslymphatic vessels, and nerve trunks all can be identified in this structure. It participates in reduction of friction, and also in anchoring as well as protection of the surrounded organs.

 

 

Questions:
A. Compare the columnar epithelium from the stomach to that of the duodenum. How is each modified to carry out a specific function?

Stomach’s epithelium is composed of two types of cells: goblet and oxyntic. Goblet cells take part in production of mucus that protects the mucosal membrane from the corrosive impacts of HCl (aq) created by the oxyntic cells. Mucus participates in lubrication of food down the canal, and acid generated by it can be credited for favorable pH conditions required for digestion of protein and destruction of harmful bacteria. On the other hand, duodenum membrane generates only some mucus for the purpose of lubrication of food.
B. What are the structural modifications you saw in the salivary glands that allow them to carry out their function?

Large size of parotid gland can be termed as; a favorable feature for its wrapping around the mandibular ramus, and for secretion of saliva through Stensen’s ducts into the oral cavity. Besides, sub-mandibular gland consists of the sub-mandibular duct with the help of which it can empty its contents at target site.
C. Where can you find Kupffer cells and what do they do?

Kupffer cells can be found in liver as; these line the walls of the sinusoids and participate in the formation of Reticulo Endothelial System (RES). These cells also remove debris from the blood thus; can be called quite valuable constituents of body.

 

 

  1. How is the ileum structurally different from the duodenum?

Duodenum is the first part of small intestine through which entry of food occurs in the stomach while, ileum is the second part of intestine. Duodenum consists of leafy-looking villi which can be called histologically exclusive structures. Besides, Brunner’s glands that take part in secretion of mucus can also be found in the duodenum only whereas; ileum is a long structure that contains vastly folded surface composed of villi. These assist in absorption of terminal products of digestion. 
E. What is the alimentary canal?
            Alimentary canal might be defined as; the passage (involving the esophagus, stomach, and intestines) along which food can be passed through the body from mouth to anus.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Activity 4: Digestive enzymes and Physiology

Observations

Data Table 1 : Carbohydrate Digestion
Tube Observations (Glucose Test)
1. Amylase, Cracker, 37 degree C Positive (fast reaction)
2. Amylase, Cracker, 22 degree C Positive (slow reaction)
3. Distilled Water, Cracker, 37 degree C Negative
4. Distilled Water, Cracker, 22 degree C Negative

 

Data Table 2 : Protein Digestion
Tube Observations
1. Trypsin, BAPNA, 37oC Cleavage of the substrate (BAPNA) in fast manner
2. Trypsin, Distilled Water, 37oC No Reaction only dissolution of Trypsin in water (fast)
3. Trypsin, BAPNA, 22oC Cleavage of the substrate in slow manner
4. Trypsin, Distilled Water, 22oC No Reaction only dissolution of Trypsin in water (slow)

 

 

Data Table 3A : Emulsifications and Controls
Tube Observations
1.  Oil and Water No Emulsification
2. Oil, Water and Bile Salts Emulsification present (Conversion of fat into smaller particles)
3. Pancreatin and Distilled Water (Control) No color change
4. Phenolphthalein, cream solution and

Distilled Water (Control)

No color change

 

Data Table 3 B : Record the relative color of the test tubes

(Compare to control Test Tubes 5 and 6).

Minutes Test Tube 1 Test Tube 2 Test Tube 3 Test Tube 4

 

 

2

Lighter than test tube 6, but not than test tube 5 Reflects color resemblance with test tubes 5 and 6 Lighter than both test tubes 5 and 6 Lighter than test tube 6, but not than test tube 5
 

4

Lighter than test tube 5 too Lighter than test tube 6 but not than 5 Lighter than before Lighter than test tube 5 too
 

6

Lighter than before Lighter than test tube 5 now Lighter than before Lighter than before
8

 

Lighter than before Lighter than before White Lighter than before
10

 

Lighter than before Lighter than before White White
 

12

White Lighter than before White White
 

14

White White White White

 

Questions:

  1. What is hydrolysis?

Hydrolysis means; disintegration of a chemical compound through reaction with water.

  1. Complete the following table:
 

Enzyme

Organ Producing it Site of Action

What does it work on? (Substrate)

Optimal pH

Salivary amylase Salivary glands Mouth Starch Neutral
Trypsin
 
Pancreas Small intestine Proteins Basic
Pancreatic lipase
 
Pancreas Small intestine Fats Basic

  1. How does BAPNA work?

This is used to identify the activity of Trypsin, a pancreatic enzyme that can take part in hydrolysis of proteins. In fact, BAPNA is a synthetic dye which is covalently bonded to an amino acid. Its solution is usually colorless, but can be turned yellow owing to hydrolysis. Because of similarity between the covalent bond found in BAPNA as of the covalent bonds present between amino acids within a protein, there could be observed a positive hydrolysis reaction which might indicate that bond present between the dye and the amino acid in BAPNA could be separated due to activity of Trypsin.
 

  1. You ran both a body temperature and room temperature test for each enzyme you tested. Did the two temperatures seem to have an effect on the enzyme activity? Why or why not?
    Yes, there might be identified considerable difference between activities shown by enzyme at different temperatures. The key reason behind is that enzymes are proteinaceous by nature the configuration of which might be transformed significantly at variable temperature conditions. Besides, temperature might also impact the interaction present between/among substrate and enzyme molecules thus; highest activity of enzyme can be recognized at that temperature where amino acids present in it are in best configurational state in context of interaction with each other and of course, with substrate moieties.
  2. Why did you have control tubes in each experiment?

Control tubes assist us in diagnosis of experimental faults via providing the opportunity of comparative analysis.
F. Explain how salivary amylase works on foods like crackers?

            Salivary amylase can digest the starch through catalyzing the hydrolysis procedure because of which, starch can be converted into maltose.

  1. Explain how Trypsin works on proteins?

Trypsin might split the molecules and can also work with Caroxy-Polypeptidase and Proclastase for the purpose of breaking down of the elastin fibers present in the protein structure.
 

  1. Fat digestion requires two steps? What are the steps and what enzymes are used to accomplish each?

First step:

Emulsification of fats can occur into smaller globules through bile produced by the liver.

Second step:

Lipids might be broken down into their constituent materials via enzymes such as; lipase.

 

Summarize Objectives/answer hypothesis/big pictures
●● Identify the organs of the digestive system and relate structure to function.

  • ● Observe the microscopic structure of various digestive structures and relate tissue structure and function.

  • ● Explain the process of digestion and how enzymes work to digest food particles.

Digestion means; conversion of macromolecules into micro-ones to ease the process of absorption and further energy-production. Enzymes might break the bonds present in polymer molecules and thus; can convert them into their monomeric units for instance; pepsin can convert protein into amino acids.
●● Relate how specific enzymes work to digest carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

All enzymes work on same principle that is; conversion of macro molecules into micro molecules through breakage of bonds, and promotion of biochemical reactions via reduction of activation energy required initiating the same.

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If a firm has two plants for producing output using only labor and plant B is more productive than plant A Answer

1.    Is the following statement true or false? If a firm has two plants for producing output using only labor and plant B is more productive than plant A, a manager who wants to get the most output from a fixed amount of labor should always assign more labor to plant B. If you think this is true say why. If you think it is false, give an example to prove your point. 

 Answer:

 True because assigning more workers to the plants in maximizing the amount produced from any given labor.

2. Consider the preferred prices of the author and the publisher of an electronic book, whose marginal cost of production is close to zero. Would the two disagree about the price to be charged for the book? 

Answer:

The author forgoes creating the alternate material in favor of creating the book. At the time of distributing the electronic book, the publishers experience essentially no marginal cost.

 

 

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Exam II BIO 235 Answers

Exam II BIO 235 Answers

  1. A 37-week-old infant was delivered by cesarean section and discharged from a Connecticut hospital when he was 10 days old. Two days later he was lethargic and had a fever. When he was readmitted to the hospital, he had multiple brain abscesses caused by Citrobacterdiversus. After a prolonged illness, the baby died. A second infant with a normal pregnancy and delivery died of C. diversus meningitis after a short illness. Nine infants in the hospital nursery had umbilical cord colonization by C. diversus. Environmental cultures were negative for hospital equipment.
  2. What is the normal habitat of this gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-endospore-forming, lactose-positive rod?

The normal habitat for C. diversus is water, sewages and feces from both animals and humans where they originate from the intestinal tract, food and soils (Shan-Chwen, 2011).

b.Provide a plan for identifying the source of infection and preventing further infection. (30 points)

Provided that the environmental cultures were negative for hospital equipment, this showed there was another potential source of infection within the hospital. With the death of infants and no traces on hospital equipment, the source of the Citrobactor outbreak may either be through mothers infecting their infants or direct contact with the hospital staffs also considering that it is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen.

In this case all the hospital staff members should be administered to a laboratory test. In humans it is always located in the intestinal tract; the feces of each staff should be isolated and cultured for the type of bacteria.  It is noted that someone with Citrobactor infection can only be recognized only be a culture and it makes much easier since the citrobactor bacteria spp can grow in different culture medium. Through the test probably a carrier of the bacteria strain will be identified and may be the reason behind the transmission of the infection. After the identification of the carrier or source of infection through a lab test, various precaution and measure should be put in place. The individual should be given the appropriate drug. The hospital staffs should wear the appropriate hospital clothing including gloves to avoid direct contact transmission.

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 14.4

 

2) Salmonella heidelberg gastroenteritis occurred on three cruises aboard the T.S.S. Festivale. Figure 14.4 shows on-board clinic visits for diarrheal illness between February 10 and March 3.

  1. Explain the incidence pattern shown on the graph

Consumption of any substances with droplets of Salmonella   is one way someone can get the bacteria, it spreads first once the food or drinks are in contact with the pathogen (CDC, 2013). From the graph, different periods are show the pathogen was able to spread in the population within a period of less than 20 days.

The numbers of new cases have changed over the period with each group having different rate of infection daily. On tenth, there was a clinical, visit from one of the crew members, again on 13th and 14th there was a recorded cases of clinical visit among 2-3 crew members. From there on no new case were reported until 21st but this time it was passenger .From the graph it shows that the pathogen may have been transferred to the passenger around 13th before the crew made their last clinical visit and got cleared of the infection. In between the days pathogen was multiplying and spreading   among the passengers

On 22nd the number of those infected had increased and continued to increase on 23rd to over 20 passengers. At this time also some of the crew members had become infected and made clinical visit. The rate of clinical visits   fluctuated in crew members as they got infected at different time. Passengers were severely affected as their number of clinical visits increased on 28th; the pathogen had spread widely among the passengers than the crew. The highest clinical visits were on 27th, 28th and 1st, by 3rd March, there were no clinical visits as all cases had been handled.

 

  1. What are probable modes of transmission?

The possible mode of transmission is consumption of the contaminated food and drinks

  1. What changes would you recommend before the ship books more cruises after March 3? (30 points)

Measures to prevent any outbreak need to be put in place. All the raw food in the ship should be cleaned with clean water. All the perishable food in the ship should be kept away in freezer or somewhere safe. Dairy product have to be pasteurization, all the water on the ship should be treated. The only food allowed for consumption is the one that has been cooked properly. All the utensils should be cleaned before and after use. Any crew member who had been exposed to the pathogen and made clinical visit should not handle any food material for the time being. All the food handlers and other passengers on the ship should always wash their hands after using the wash room, Pets should not be allowed on the ship since they can also transmit the pathogen to the handler who will in turn spread it (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011).

  1. A 56-year-old Army officer received a smallpox vaccination at a military vaccination clinic. Within 2 weeks, a painful ulcer was noted at the vaccination site. Because of the appearance of an increasing number of peripheral lesions and because of continued enlargement of the initial ulcer, he was treated. Eventual recovery was complicated by Pseudomonas sepsis and the need for a skin graft at the vaccination site. What was the cause of the ulcer and lesions, and what were the treatments? What caused the Pseudomonas infection? (30 points)

The formation of a painful ulcer after the army officer was received small pox vaccine can be explained in different ways, It is either his body immune system was responding to the vaccine introduction into the body. The other possibility is that the equipment used for vaccination was contaminated with a pathogen; the formation of the ulcer was a result of the body responding to the infection.

Pseudomonas spp is a gram negative bacteria, it produces a lot of toxin when on entering the body and spreads very quickly. It is also an opportunistic pathogen. There is chance that the army officer may have got the bacteria from the contaminated equipment used. Also he may have go it somewhere else, whereby it entered the body  through the wound caused by immune response at the site of injection, the most probable source may be warm tap water which is one of the  reservoirs for the pathogen. The presence of pseudomonas spp causes the development of peripheral lesions and increases as the number of bacteria also increase. Treatment using antibiotic like penicillin will be able to kill the pathogen (Flannigan, 2013).

 

 

  1. In the West Branch Study what are your thoughts on how the investigation was done? It is a classic study. (10 Points)

The investigation of an outbreak of hepatitis needed to be done quickly to prevent further spread to other areas and also identify the root cause. It was a very challenging task to the CDC (Center of Disease Control) to pin down on the source of the outbreak. It was the second time CDC was using case control method in their study, the method is always retrospective. The methodology required to pick out the correct group of controls and used to trace back the source (CDC, 2013).

 

References

Shan-Chwen, C. (2011). Citrobacter species. Antimicrobial TherapyJournal . Retrieved from http://www.antimicrobe.org/b93.asp#top

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2011). Pseudomonas spp. Pathogen safety data sheet – infectious substances. Retrieved from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/pseudomonas-spp-eng.php

Flannigan, L. (2013). Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.University of Oklahoma. Retrieved from https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Pseudomonas_aeruginosa_infection

Center of Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Salmonella. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/diagnosis.html

 

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Axia IT 210 Week 8 Assignment Object-Oriented Design Solution

Assignment: Object-Oriented Design Cd / Dvd System

In the object-oriented design for the CD and DVD medial collection system we need to identify the information about the media we are making a system. In the CD and DVD media system we need the name or normally called title of the CD/DVD, its track length, genre information and the ratings of the CD/DVD. Other than this some general information also needed to make system working efficiently.

 Item

 CD

 DVD

 

In this media collection we needs an Item class which keeps general information about the media and the another class which handle the unique information about the media which we are going to use. For example here Item class handles the name of the CD/DVD; its type’s means either CD or DVD and the quantity of this product in the system. So its

   * Attributes are: Name, Type and Quantity.

   * Methods are: SetName, GetName, SetType, GetType, SetQuantity and GetQuantity.

 Class Item

 Name As String

 Type As String

 Quantity As Integer

 

Subprogram NewItem(NewName)

 Call SetName (NewName)

 Call SetQuantity(Quantity + 1)

 End Subprogram

 Subprogram SetName(NewName)

 Set Name = NewName

 End Subprogram

 Subprogram SetType(NewType)

 Set Type = NewType

 End Subprogram

 Subprogram

 SetQuantity(NewQuantity)

 Set Quantity = NewQuantity

 End Subprogram

 Function GetName() As String

 Set GetName = Name

 End Function

 Function GetType() As String

 Set GetType = Type

 End Function

 Function GetQuantity() As Integer

 Set GetQuantity = Quantity

 End Function

 End Class

 

Class CDMedia As Item

 Length as Real

 Genre as String

 Rating as String

 Subprogram NewCDMedia (NewLength, NewGenre, NewRating)

 Call SetLength(NewLength)

 Call SetGenre(NewGenre)

 Call SetRating(NewRating)

 End Subprogram

 Subprogram SetLength(NewLength)

 Set Length = NewLength

 End Subprogram

 Subprogram SetGenre(NewGenre)

 Set Genre = NewGenre

 End Subprogram

 Subprogram SetRating(NewRating)

 Set Rating = NewRating

 End Subprogram

 Function GetLength() As Real

 Set GetLength = Length

 End Function

 Function GetGenre() As String

 Set GetGenre = Genre

 End Function

 Function GetRating() As String

 Set GetRating = Rating

 End Function

 

End Class

 

Class DVDMedia As Item

 Length as Real

 Genre as String

 Rating as String

 Subprogram NewDVDMedia (NewLength, NewGenre, NewRating)

 Call SetLength(NewLength)

 Call SetGenre(NewGenre)

 Call SetRating(NewRating)

 End Subprogram

 Subprogram SetLength(NewLength)

 Set Length =

 NewLength

 End Subprogram

 Subprogram SetGenre(NewGenre)

 Set Genre = NewGenre

 End Subprogram

 Subprogram SetRating(NewRating)

 Set Rating = NewRating

 End Subprogram

 Function GetLength() As Real

 Set GetLength = Length

 End Function

 Function GetGenre() As String

 Set GetGenre = Genre

 End Function

 Function GetRating() As String

 Set GetRating = Rating

 End Function

 End Class

 

Another class called CDMedia class inherits the class Item, so CDMedia is a Subclass of the Item Super class. This class inherits all the three attributes and the all six methods of the super class. Other then this it also contains the following members in its design.

   * Attributes are: Length, Genre and Rating.

   * Methods are: SetLength, GetLength, SetGenre, GetGenre, SetRating and GetRating.

 So this Media class contains total six attributes and twelve methods in its design. The DVDMedia class contains the similar design as the CDMedia class has; so we are not going to elaborate the DVDMedia class.

 The following GUI will be used to demonstrating the Media Collection System.

     My Media Collection

 

Add Media

 Name:

 Length:

 Genre:

 Rating:

 Reset

 Select Media

 Enter the Following Media Information

CD

 DVD

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What does the outsourcing of the HR function involve? What are pros and cons of HR Outsourcing Answer

What does the outsourcing of the HR function involve? What are pros and cons of HR Outsourcing? What do you think are three critical considerations that you must include in the implementation plan for this outsourcing transition?

 

Ans:

 

Maintaining an efficient and productive workplace is critical. Outsourcing HR functions create greater efficiency within human resources systems. Advanced human resources technology utilized by outsourcing providers help streamline important HR functions, such as payroll, benefit administration and compliance management. Outsourcing helps employers and managers spend less time doing paperwork and more time dedicated to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the workforce. There are many benefits to outsourcing HR functions. For one thing, not every business has dedicated human resources professionals. Outsourcing gives them the ability to take on this responsibility by outsourcing them to outside human resources outsourcers. We minimize risk by outsourcing HR to outside human resources outsourcers. outsourcing HR is a good idea and can save them money by not having to staff this department. Some key benefits are:

 

  1. Saves time

 

  1.    Don’t have to hassle with government forms

 

  1. Access to skilled personal

 

  1. Employees don’t have to worry about company backlash if they have any complaints

 

  1. Save money on training and maintain skill sets

 

For management the outsourcing of HR can be a cost savings and it can have the added benefit of adding a truly objective eye toward the process. By being an outside source HR can be more free from the internal office political environment. On the other hand this can be a minus in the same way. Since you are dealing with people, treating them as nothing more than units to be managed can be bad for morale. People are Relational beings and developing relationships with the people in the company can be beneficial and allow for the “human” element to be represented.

Another plus is that HR can be more free to hold management accountable. When HR is in-house the HR person has to worry that they could step on the wrong toes and find themselves in trouble with senior management. While it is poossible for an outsourced HR to make a major blunder and thus lose the account, there is still that degree of insulation by being an outside source.

 

Here are three things that a manager would need to consider in the implementation plan for this outsourcing transition:

  1. determining who stays and goes. This was outlined in the text under a detailed list making process. Pretty much a pro and con scenario.
  2. legal considerations in separating the employees from the company. Union/state laws/ERISA/WARN and federal laws. Not to mention public opinion from the announcements and when to mention them.
  3. compensation or severance packages. Truly here is where the difficulty must be from an employer. They are trying to save and limit costs but also are trying to maintain fairness and good public opinion. What can they afford to do? Here I would be dealing with the CFO and accountants and lawyers to determine what we can offer.
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Consider the Earned Income Tax Credit policy described in lecture. All else equal, what is the implication for labor supply Answer

Consider the Earned Income Tax Credit policy described in lecture. All else equal, what is the implication for labor supply if:

  1. The EITC supplement rate increases from (about) 30% to 60%?The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a largely successful component of American labor and antipoverty policy, increasing the ability of workers in low-paying jobs to support themselves and their families. Work remains to improve the EITC’s effectiveness including expanding eligibility and increasing participation among those already eligible. If there is rise in the EITC supplement rate from 30% to 60%, then the labor supply will increase because they will have more tax credits. Lower income groups will have more disposable income and hence they would be encouraged to work more to get good earnings for their living.
  2. AnswerThe phase-out rate increases?Phase-out rate means there are different EITC rate at different income slabs. If there is rise in the phase-out rate then there will be fall in the labor supply because people having higher income have to pay higher taxes and hence their net wages will fall. It will discourage workers to work more.
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Mary Rhodes, operations manager at Kansas Furniture, has received the following estimates of demand requirements Answer

Mary Rhodes, operations manager at Kansas Furniture, has received the following estimates of demand requirements:

July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
1,000 1,200 1,400 1,800 1,800 1,600
  1. a) Assuming stockout costs for lost sales of $100 per unit, inventory carrying costs of $25 per unit per month, and zero beginning and ending inventory, evaluate these two plans on an incremental cost basis:
  • Plan A: Produce at a steady rate (equal to minimum requirements) of 1,000 units per month and subcontract additional units at a $60 per unit premium cost.
  • Plan B: Vary the workforce, which performs at a current production level of 1,300 units per month. The cost of hiring additional workers is $3,000 per 100 units produced. The cost of layoffs is $6,000 per 100 units cut back.

Ans:

 

Plan A
Month Demand Production End of period Inventory Sub Contract Units Inventory Cost Subcontract Cost
June 1000
July 1000 1000 0 0 0 0
August 1200 1000 0 200 0 12000
September 1400 1000 0 400 0 24000
October 1800 1000 0 800 0 48000
November 1800 1000 0 800 0 48000
December 1600 1000 0 600 0 36000
Total Cost   $ 168000

 

 

 

Plan B
Month Demand Production Hire Layoff Hire Cost Layoff Cost
June 1300
July 1000 1000 0 300 0 18000
August 1200 1200 200 0 6000 0
September 1400 1400 200 0 6000 0
October 1800 1800 400 0 12000 0
November 1800 1800 0 0 0 0
December 1600 1600 0 200 0 12000
Total Cost 24000 30000

Total Cost in Plan B = 30000+24000 = $ 54000

 

  1. b) Which plan is best and why?

Ans:

Comparing both the plan, we find that Plan B is better.

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Compare and contrast consumption tax and income tax. Analyze the effects of each on the economy Answer

Compare and contrast consumption tax and income tax. Analyze the effects of each on the economy.

Ans: Consumption, or current expenditure, is an alternative to income as a tax base. A general tax on consumption is equivalent to an income tax that allows savings to be excluded from the tax base. Taxable consumption would be calculated directly from data on income simply by excluding that portion of income that is saved rather than spent. Income can be given as :

Income = Consumption + Consumption Tax

An interesting difference between an income tax and an expenditure tax lies in the treatment of borrowed funds. Under the consumption tax, loans are taxed when they are spent. Under an income tax, loans are never added to the taxpayer’s income, but interest payments on the loan are often deductible from taxable income. The consumption tax includes the loan proceeds in the tax base as they are spent and allows the deductions from consumption as the loan is paid off.

A blanket comparison of these two types of taxes is challenging because either one can be progressive or regressive and more or less efficient depending on the tax rate(s) and tax base. The current US income tax is progressive in nature, but not entirely comprehensive; some forms of income are exempted from taxation or are taxed at lower rates, which others are taxed twice. A similar situation would likely occur with a nation-wide consumption tax. Certain types of consumption (food, housing, medicine) would likely be excluded from taxation. However, it is unlikely that double taxation would occur with a consumption tax.

In general, consumption is income minus savings. So if both taxes were to include a broad base, shifting to a consumption tax is equivalent to removing taxes on saving and investment. Consumption taxes shift preferences away from spending and on to saving since the additional income gained from the investment (interest) is tax-free. The percentage of income spent on consumption each year decreases as income rises, so a broad base would create a regressive tax system and benefit tax payers fortunate enough to have left-over money to invest after expenses.

Sales, exercise, turnover and value-added tax are all consumption taxes. Sales tax are taxes accessed to a purchase of tangible goods unlike the exercise taxes. An exercise tax is a tax on specific activiites, but is generally designed to discourage consumption of certain activities. Turnover tax is multistage sales tax that charged a fixed rate on transactions during stages of production. Turnover taxes are very similar to value added tax, but it isnt a general tax it is accessed to the final price of higher goods. Value-added tax is tax on the consumption when value is added to a product during the production process. I think exercise taxes affect the economy the most. The tax serves to police and discourages consumption of a particular activity, but the typically behaviour for people is to do things that arent good for them. As a result the government generates income of of the program. If you truely wish demonize a negative activity make it illegal. This practice is evident with the consumption and sales of liquor.

Consumptions taxes are accessed on the purchase of goods and services. Income tax is accessed on the income earned. The two taxes are quite different but relative. Income minus savings is equals consumption. Consumptions taxes indicate the difference in the amount consume and saved during period of time. The effects of consumption identifies if an economy is growing if consumption is high than people are spending money and vice versa. If income rates are high than people generally have more to spend or save. Individuals choices change and this is based on tax rates.

References:

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-05-02/value-added-tax-would-raise-tons-for-u-s-coffers.html

David N. Hyman (2010). Public Finance. 10th Edition.

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In quantitative designs how does sampling error effect sample generalizability? Also, what four factors reduce sampling error Answer

In quantitative designs how does sampling error effect sample generalizability? Also, what four factors reduce sampling error?

Sample generalizability is significantly influenced by the size and representativeness of the sample. If the selection is not done properly and sample is not randomly selected, it can limit sample generalizability. Sample may not represent the population from which it has been drawn. For example, convenience sampling decreases generalizability.

Four factors that can reduce sampling error are:

– Choosing sample of respondents in an unbiased manner

– Using simple random sampling

– By increasing the size of the sample as the sampling error can be reduced by increasing the sample size.

– By using stratification. Population can be divided into different groups containing similar units.

 

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GMX Resources, an independent oil and gas exploration and production company, has a 9.25% preferred stock outstanding Answer

Question GMX Resources, an independent oil and gas exploration and production company, has a 9.25% preferred stock outstanding, which pays an annual dividend of $2.3125. If investors require a return of 15% on small companies in this sector, what will this preferred stock sell for? (Points : 1)

$14.11        $14.72        $15.41        $28.58

Answer :  $ 15.41