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Choose three different versions of the UNIX® or Linux® operating systems to compare. Insert the three chosen versions Answer

Unix® and Linux® Comparison Matrix

 

Directions: Choose three different versions of the UNIX® or Linux® operating systems to compare. Insert the three chosen versions and fill out the requested information in the Components column.

 

UNIX® or Linux® operating system version: <RHEL or Red Hat>

 

Components Your response
Role of shell The role of a shell is an interactive command interpreter environment within which commands may be typed at a prompt or entered into a file in the form of a script and executed.
Three features and roles of each feature Scripts written with the bash shell tend to make more extensive use of the many small utility programs (for example, to perform character string manipulation), while perl scripts perform more of these types of operations using features built into the language itself. A script written using python can fully exploit the language’s object-oriented capabilities, making complex scripts more easily extensible
Comments on security Security cannot be an afterthought, and security under Red Hat Enterprise Linux is more than skin-deep. Authentication and access controls are deeply-integrated into the operating system and are based on designs gleaned from long experience in the UNIX community.
Comments on administration T he new graphical boot sequence provides the user with simple visual feedback on the progress of the system boot, and seamlessly switches to the login screen. T he Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 graphical boot sequence is enabled by the Kernel Modesetting feature and is available on AT I, Intel and NVIDIA

graphics hardware.

 

System Administrators are still able to view detailed progress of the boot sequence by pressing the F11 key at any time during the graphical boot.

Comments on networking Every data packet transferred over a network device represents processing which must be completed bya CPU. T he low-level network implementation in Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows network device drivers to divide network packet processing across multiple queues. Dividing these processes allows a

system to better utilize the multiple processors and CPU cores present on modern systems.

 

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 features support for the Intra-Site Automatic T unnel Addressing Protocol(ISAT AP). ISAT AP is a protocol designed to assist in the transition from IPv4 to IPv6, by providing a mechanism to connect IPv6 routers and hosts over IPv4 network infrastructure.

 

Comments on performance Every time a program or a command is run, a process is created for it. These processes are all unique and identified by the process identification or PID that because allocated to it. System processes are critical to keeping the system up and running or providing services to clients. Management of of processes can help keep the system stable or help when the system becomes unstable.
Comments on programmability Today, features such as the detailed

assignment of file permissions,

central user management with directory services, and central server management via web browser are indispensable. Automation of systems administration and the consolidation of servers and tasks help reduce operating costs. With its range of tools and excellent

programmability, SUSE LINUX Standard Server 8 offers the solution for all these vital to-dos.

Other None at this time.

 

UNIX® or Linux® operating system version: <Solaris>

 

Components Your response
Role of shell The role of a shell is an interactive command interpreter environment within which commands may be typed at a prompt or entered into a file in the form of a script and executed. By default, Solaris uses Bourne Shell.
Three features and roles of each feature Bourne Shell (/sbin/sh) is a static shell needing no external libraries.

If your disc were to become corrupt, you could still load the library files with bourn shell.

BASH is another shell in Solaris that has a lot more functionality than Bourne.

Comments on security Solaris is a robust, premier enterprise operating system that offers proven security features. With sophisticated network-wide security system that controls the way users access files, protect system databases and use system resources.
Comments on administration  
Comments on networking Solaris 11 introduced two new commands for manually administering networks, dladm and ipadm, and bother supersede ifconfit. Dladm performs data-lin administrator to configure physical links. Ipadm configures IP addresses, and TCP/IP protocol properties.

 

Reference: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/articles/servers-storage-admin/s11-netwrok-config-1632927.html

 

Comments on performance As mentioned above, Solaris is a very robust operating system for enterprise use. The reason behind it great security features and performance. I have personally used Solaris previously and was very happy with the performance. Never remember any performance issues.
Comments on programmability The beauty of a UNIX system is that you can program it according to your or your companies needs. Solaris offers the same thing with very little modification. Since Solaris is owned by Oracle now, they’ve made quite a few good improvements to the operating system making it more usable friendly.
Other None at this time.

 

UNIX® or Linux® operating system version: <Suse>

 

Components Your response
Role of shell The role of a shell is an interactive command interpreter environment within which commands may be typed at a prompt or entered into a file in the form of a script and executed.
Three features and roles of each feature You can combine simple shell commands to create a more sophisticated command. For example, suppose that you want to find out whether a device file named sbpcd resides in your system’s /dev directory because some documentation says you need that device file for a sound blaster pro cd-rom drive. You can use the ls /dev command to get a directory listing of the /dev directory and then browse through it to see whether that listing contains sbpcd.

The Shell sends outut of the ls command to the grep command which msearches for the string sbpcd. That vertical bar (|) is known as a pipe because it acts as a conduit between the two programs.

Comments on security Operations like the management of file and user access permissions

are easier and more intuitive with SUSE LINUX Standard Server than with any other brand of Linux, and can easily stand comparison with other operating systems.

Comments on administration In SUSE LINUX Standard Server 8, user information is administered in a central directory service (LDAP). Security is further enhanced by using detailed permission management via Access Control Lists (ACL) which can be configured and modified by way of a web interface even from remote hosts.
Comments on networking You can configure the network interface for the SLES platform either by using the GUI or manually editing the configuration file.
Comments on performance Efficiency, reliability, and availability are the most prominent requirements for an operating system of the 21st century. For this reason, the trend-setting technology is an integral element of the latest version of SUSE LINUX Standard Server. Standard Server is based on the same engineering that build SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server, which is run on mainframes around the globe.
Comments on programmability SUSE LINUX Standard Server grows along with your IT infrastructure. It can easily be customized and integrated seamlessly into existing IT environments. Migration to SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server is possible at any time without migrating any user data.
Other None at this time.
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PHI 210 M. Forrester once said, “How can I know what I think until I see what I say Answer

“Knowing and Thinking” Please respond to the following:

  1. M. Forrester once said, “How can I know what I think until I see what I say?”
  • Find one (1) quote in Chapter 1 made by some other famous person about “knowing” or “thinking” which you think best describes your own viewpoint.
  • Explain how the quote you chose relates to one of the roles of thinking.
  • Explain why the quote or comment you chose is meaningful to you.

Answer:

“Print allows you to hold another’s mind in your hand” by James Burke. I have never thought about actual printed material and what it does for the human mind but Mr. Burke took this concept very deep. Printed material can enlighten, clarify and sharpen our thoughts on that certain material we are trying to understand. This quote is meaningful to me because it gave me an understanding of what printed material does for the human mind. I’m a reader and I never thought of this concept on this level. If you think about what the proliferation of printing has done, it’s quite amazing. In the ancient world, for example, at least 95% of the population was illiterate. That meant, among other things, that if they wanted to tell stories or some such, they had to memorize them. As it goes, bards went around Greece reciting Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey – both very long works that they had memorized. Printing has absolved us from the act of memory: if I want to know what hoof and mouth disease is, I just go to a dictionary, or encyclopedia, or google it. I don’t have to commit it to memory in the way earlier cultures did. So in a sense, it has had a mixed effect: on the one hand, we have within our grasp, without much effort at all, a vast amount of information that simply wouldn’t have been available in an earlier time without mass printing. On the other hand, the art of memory has deliquesced; we no longer commit to memory poems, quotes, passages from fiction, etc. I’m not sure if that is a good thing or not. This quote “Print allows you to hold another’s mind in your hand” really puts meaning to something I love to do, and that is reading the editorials in the newspaper. I may think I have a strong belief on some thing and when I then read someone else’s opinion or view on the same subject a lot of times I can totally understand and agree with something they said or pointed out that I did not see in the same way. Other times my view or opinion is not swayed but I do enjoy reading how other people feel about what is going on in our world. In those instances, when you are reading someone else’s opinions and views, it is exactly like holding another’s mind in your hand as James Burke stated.

I have chosen a quote by Bruner (1986) where he says: “Language is a way of sorting one’s thoughts about things. Thought is a mode of organizing perception and action”. This quote explains well about what thought is. We actually don’t have much idea about what thought is, until it is talked, discussed or written down on a piece of paper or circulated through the print media for masses’ consumption. Talking or writing gives “Thought” some form that is more visible, more audible and can be understood by others. According to me, this quote captures the essence of what I learnt about this chapter or you can say this is my viewpoint in short.

“We do not write in order to be understood, we write in order to understand(C.Day Lewis)” I find that i need to write down items to clear my thoughts or to refine them. This method helps me to improve upon my ideas. I often start my paper my writing out a frame work then just filling in as much information in to each part of it. Then i take a break and re re -read what i wrote and improve on my ideas.

 

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Consider the following: “Arrow’s impossibility theorem is an interesting intellectual exercise, but it is of little practical importance Answer

“Welfare Economics.” Please respond to the following:

  • Consider the following: “Arrow’s impossibility theorem is an interesting intellectual exercise, but it is of little practical importance. It dramatizes the extent to which economics has deteriorated into a science of the trivial.” Do you agree or disagree? Provide at least two (2) reasons to support your answer.
  • Speculate how socialism thought and theory contributed to the authors of welfare economics.
  • Consider the following: “Arrow’s impossibility theorem is an interesting intellectual exercise, but it is of little practical importance. It dramatizes the extent to which economics has deteriorated into a science of the trivial.” Do you agree or disagree? Provide at least two (2) reasons to support your answer.

 

Consider the following: “Arrow’s impossibility theorem is an interesting intellectual exercise, but it is of little practical importance. It dramatizes the extent to which economics has deteriorated into a science of the trivial.” Do you agree or disagree? Provide at least two (2) reasons to support your answer.

Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem states that no election is swayed by the voting method used. The criteria of unrestricted domain, nondictatorship, paret efficienty, and independence of irrelevant alternative are used to determine the validity of the voting method. Clear order of preferences cannot be determined while adhering to mandatory principles of fair voting procedure. Arrow’s result to welfare economics has very little relevance as it doesn’t consider a change in individual preferences or doesn’t require any consistency requirement between different social welfare functions under different sets of individual preferences.

Arrow impossibility theorem states a clear order of preference cannot be determined while adhering to mandatory principles of fair voting procedure. Arrow’s impossibility theorem states that a clear order of preferences cannot be determined while adhering to mandatory principles of fair voting procedure. Arrow ‘proved’ that ‘No fair voting system exists if there are three or more parties’. And so on. Too many people, even ones who are otherwise intelligent, well informed, intellectually serious and analytically acute, seem to believe this sort of thing. Arrow’s Theorem states that, when choosing between more than two options, it is impossible in general to implement these four conditions without creating cycling group preferences. More dramatically, demanding transitive group preferences and the first three conditions implies there will be a dictatorship.

In my opinion Arrow was able to effectively prove that there is no way to have a fair way to vote while adhering to the mandatory principles of fair voting procedures, if you have more than 2 candidates. He did this by showing that a voting structure that is reflective of specific fairness criteria, such as Pareto efficiency, is not possible. He also showed that a clear order of preferences cannot be determine with more than 2 candidates.

Speculate how socialism thought and theory contributed to the authors of welfare economics.

According to influential socialist economic historian Karl Polanski classics account, the forceful transformation of land, money and especial labor into commodities to be allocated by an autonomous market mechanism was alien and inhuman rupture of the per-existing social fabric.

To overcome depression and prevent revolution he substituted a managed economy for the law of supply and demand. He established a sound currency by guaranteeing to the gold coinage a fixed weight and purity which it retained in the Eastern Empire until 1453. He distributed food to the poor at half the market price or free, and undertook extensive public works to appease the unemployed. To ensure the supply of necessaries for the cities and the armies, he brought many branches of industry under complete state control, beginning with the import of grain; he persuaded the ship-owners, merchants, and crews engaged in this trade to accept such control in return for governmental guarantee of security in employment and returns.

References: lamar.colostate.edu/~grjan/socialismprimer.html

If we go back to Marx his argument was that there would be an ever increasing concentration of wealth in fewer and fewer hands. What welfare economics is about is two things: 1) on it’s own does the system lead to increasing concentrations of wealth; and 2) if so is there a ‘fair’ way in which to re-distribute that wealth?

Mr. Arrow received the Nobel prize, along with Sir John Hicks, more for his ideas on general equilibrium theory than on welfare economics. Iit was Arrow’s contribution to general equilibrium theory that was the real basis of his Nobel. However, the impossibility theorm was an important stepping stone. The impossibility theory is an important theoretical work that leads to works by Buchanan and the field of Public Choice. Sen builds on Arrow to develop his Douglas North Like analysis of institutional/social/etc as constraints on economic decisions that produce such things as failed responses to famines and poverty.

Marx contrasted capitalist economies to “socialist” ones, which vest more power in the political system. Marx and his followers believed that capitalist economies concentrate power in the hands of wealthy business people, who aim mainly to maximize profits; socialist economies, on the other hand, would be more likely to feature greater control by government, which tends to put political aims — a more equal distribution of society’s resources, for instance — ahead of profits.

Social Welfare, which is part of welfare economics, is when the welfare of the individual is judged by looking at the welfare of the group. This is not a good way to judge welfare in a society because if you talk to 2 people they will not have the same story on their welfare. I can see how this type of theory can be suited with socialism.

 

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How do we convert a group to a team? What benefits might come from this conversion in a business environment Answer

How do we convert a group to a team? What benefits might come from this conversion in a business environment?

Team is capable of producing more than the sum of its members. A critical factor and major differentiation between a group and a team is that team has a common goal and objective. Members who are not committed to each other or a common goal do not experience cohesion and are likely to leave the team or even the organization. The first step in creating team is the establishment of the team vision and/or goal. Team Leader must set a clear vision to which the team can jointly work towards together. A clearly defined goal articulated to the team in such a way that they all understand will inspire the team and commit them to the cause. Once the goal has been clearly defined and clearly articulated, team leader must keep the vision and goal alive. If we look at CanGo Organization, they have several departments such as Finance, Operation, IT, Human Resource and Management Team. If they have to implement their various projects e.g. ASRS system, Online Gaming project and process simplification project, all of these department’s team members have to work as a cohesive team and then work towards completion of the project. Teams can be defined as people who:

  • Work toward a common set of goals
  • Work jointly
  • Share common leadership
  • Hold joint accountability for performance
  • See themselves as being part of a team with common goals and shared Vision.

Groups are clusters of people that do not share these five characteristics to the same extent as teams.

Definition of a Group

A common definition of a group is three or more individuals that interact about a common goal and have influence over one another. Three components of a group are size, goal orientation, and influence.

Definition of a Team

A common definition of a team is that it comprises a group of people. A group can develop into a team if it has a coordinated effort to reach a common goal. Teams are typically more close-knit groups of people who work together over a long period of time to accomplish a goal.

Differences Between Groups and Teams

A group doesn’t necessarily constitute a team because a team requires a coordinated effort. A team is a more specialized in that it includes common resources and collective effort. Characteristics of a group are interdependence, interaction, synergy, common goals, shared norms, and cohesiveness. A group can be informal, such as 3-12 people that are in a meeting to discuss a business problem. Teams are structured more formally and are sometimes assigned. Teams have a purpose, specific goals, and assigned duties. Teams need to have different members with special roles in order to help achieve a common goal.

Differences between groups and teams (n.d.). In Boundliness. Retrieved July 29, 2013, from https://www.boundless.com/management/groups-teams-and-teamwork/defining-teams-and-teamwork/differences-between-groups-and-teams/

To me when a group is a random gathering of people. A team is more or a selected group of people. Also a group is more short term goal while a team is looking more toward a long term goal. Something that they all have a goal to get to. One distinction of group work and teamwork is that often times in groups, there are 1 or 2 group members who do not carry an equal share of the workload. This is frustrating and causes the other group members to have to pick up the slack. Generally, team members tend to carry their own load of the workload and even offer to help their teammates who may be struggling. In summary, what I am trying to say is that group members are more focused on what each person has to do and receiving credit and recognition for their own achievements while team members are focused on achieving a common goal, and working as a team to achieve this goal.

Most teams follow 4 stages:

Forming – This is the start-up stage – everyone is unsure how to act around group, usually lower output for greater effort.

Leaders can reduce uncertainty by explaining purpose/goals. Allow time for team member to get to know one another. Walk the Talk.

Storming – This stage is one that is often the most difficult – conflict, authority concerns arise, but team members become more comfortable being themself.

Leaders can reduce uncertainty by acknoledging conflict as opportunity for improvement, adhere to core values, hear all points of view, stay focused

Norming – This stage is where order begins, team members understand how to resolve conflict, Team members now have identity with the group. Productivity increases

Leaders can Encourage Norm Development by Modeling listening skills, fostering atmosphere of trust, teaching and facilitating, provide team centered learning

Performing – This stage is were everything falls into place. The team becomes productive, low conflict, morale is up, less direction needed as team understand common goal and fellow team members abilities

I have worked on various teams, either at work or through school, and most of the teams that I have been on have never reached the Performing stage. Typically, the teams that I’ve worked on haven’t moved beyond the Storming phase. Upon reflection, I believe this might be due to having a poorly executed Forming stage.

Ensure the team members are clear on the distinction between their common ‘goals’ and their individual ‘roles’. We can share the same goal and vision, but take on differing roles in a collaborative venture. The captain of a steam ship and the stoker share the same destination, but perform vastly different tasks along the journey. Ask your team members to express their individual role in terms that articulate how that role contributes to the common goals and vision.

 

Transforming a group into a team is a process that is developed over time requiring various stage of growth. The concept of team building has 4 – 5 fives steps of development identified as forming, storming, norming and performing with the fifth stage being the termination. The initial phase of this process brings individuals togethers to layout the purpose and guidelines for how the team should operate. As the examination of skills, abilities and roles are being sorted out their is a potential for conflict to be generated within the team. Getting past the storming phase of team building is critical because team can be stuck here never successfully reaching it goals. The development of confidence and trust between the members of a team should happen within the norming phase. The performing stage is the time when the team should be functioning at it highest level engaged in completing the tasks outlined during the initial forming stage. Upon the conclusion of team there is a point where final evaluations are performed and team members are reassigned to other project. Unless a common goal is held for a given venture and each individual holds the one vision of the shared destination. Lacking direction, such a group will fragment as energies are spent in moving against each other rather than as a team. To help covert a group into a team you must work to build a good working relationship with everyone. Everyone must learn to work together and this can be done by group activities and you will see that over time they will see how everyone has experience that they can bring to the table.